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1.2 SOFTWARE EVOLUTION MODELS AND PROCESSES There is much confusion about the terms "software maintenance" and "software evolution." The confusion is partly due to a lack of attention paid to models for sustaining software systems and partly due to considering maintenance to be another activity in software development. For example, consider the classical Waterfall model for software development proposed by Winston Royce in circa 1970 [26]. The final phase of the Waterfall model is known as maintenance, which implies that software maintenance is a part of software development. In this regard it is worth quoting Norman Schneidewind [27]: "The traditional view of the software life cycle has done a disservice to maintenance by depicting it solely as a single step at the end of the cycle" (p. 304). Therefore, software maintenance should have its own software maintenance life cycle (SMLC) model [28]. A number of SMLC models with some variations are available in literature [8, 29–35]. Three common features of the SMLC models found in the literature are: