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Differentiating between data, information and knowledge a. Data …‘discrete, objective facts or observations, which are unorganised and unprocessed and therefore have no meaning or value because of lack of context and interpretation’ (Rowley and Hartley, 2008). • Data is raw facts that reflect the characteristics of an event or entity. • Data is easy to store and manipulate in computers. • Within an organisation, there are different sources that can provide the raw data. 10 3/22/2021 Differentiating between data, information and knowledge b. Information • It is data that has been processed into a meaningful form. Seen in this way, information is an collection of data in a comprehensible form capable of communication and use; the essence of it is that a meaning has been attached to the raw facts (Cawkell, 2003). • Information is the word applied in broad professional and technical contexts represented through phrases such as ‘information technology’, or ‘information retrieval’ and ‘information management’(Cawell, 2003). 11 3/22/2021 Differentiating between data, information and knowledge C. Knowledge • Knowledge is information evaluated and organized in the human mind so that it can be used purposefully. In this sense, the term can be equated with understanding (Feather, 2003). • Knowledge is the combination of information, context, and experience (Ponelis & FairerWessels, 1998:2) • Knowledge is actionable information